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MCI Paper Session 2 – Visualization
September 7 @ 15:30 - 16:30
Diese Session wird live auf YouTube übertragen:
Welche visuellen Elemente lassen Texte wissenschaftlich erscheinen? Eine empirische Untersuchung
Oliver Hahn1, Steffen Lemke1, Athanasios Mazarakis1,2, Isabella Peters1,2
1ZBW – Leibniz-Informationszentrum Wirtschaft, Germany; 2Christian-Albrechts-Universität zu Kiel, Germany
Für eine jeweilige Problemstellung relevante Artikel zu finden, erfordert eine Eingrenzung der Texte, ohne diese schon vertieft zu lesen. Eine Bewertung der potenziellen Relevanz erfolgt dabei unter anderem anhand von Meta-Informationen. Visuelle Elemente und die Gestaltung eines wissenschaftlichen Textes können diesen als Unterscheidungsmerkmal von unwissenschaftlichen oder scheinwissenschaftlichen Texten abgrenzen. Um zu untersuchen, welche visuelle Form einen Text als wissenschaftlich erscheinen lassen, wurde ein Experiment durchgeführt. Das Experiment liefert als Ergebnis, dass mathematische Formeln, Diagramme oder Tabellen im klassischen Zweispalten-Layout einen wissenschaftlichen Eindruck erzeugen. Darstellungen, welche nicht den wissenschaftlichen Konventionen entsprechen, z.B. Fotos in Kombination mit einspaltigen Texten, wird von der Mehrheit der Befragten als weniger wissenschaftlich wahrgenommen.
A View on the Viewer: Gaze-Adaptive Captions for Videos
Kuno Kurzhals1, Fabian Göbel1, Katrin Angerbauer2, Michael Sedlmair2, Martin Raubal1
1ETH Zürich; 2University of Stuttgart
Subtitles play a crucial role in cross-lingual distribution of multimedia content and help communicate information where auditory content is not feasible (loud environments, hearing impairments, unknown languages). Established methods utilize text at the bottom of the screen, which may distract from the video. Alternative techniques place captions closer to related content (e.g., faces) but are not applicable to arbitrary videos such as documentations. Hence, we propose to leverage live gaze as indirect input method to adapt captions to individual viewing behavior. We implemented two gaze-adaptive methods and compared them in a user study (n=54) to traditional captions and audio-only videos. The results show that viewers with less experience with captions prefer our gaze-adaptive methods as they assist them in reading. Furthermore, gaze distributions resulting from our methods are closer to natural viewing behavior compared to the traditional approach. Based on these results, we provide design implications for gaze-adaptive captions.
Distribution Sliders: Visualizing Data Distributions in Range Selection Sliders
Sliders are often used to enable users to easily enter preferences for continuous data. Although efforts have already been made to enrich and improve these interaction tools with additional information and visualizations, only rather basic variants of sliders are commonly used in online shops or databases. However, these sliders often provide users only with very limited information about underlying data.
We describe and evaluate three different slider designs, which enrich the tools with information in various ways, enabling users to efficiently explore the space of available items and to choose items in an informed manner. In one of the described slider designs we propose a new approach that integrates item recommendations directly into the slider, enabling users to see suitable items within the selection tool. In two user studies we show that these enhancements, both visualizations and recommendations, are powerful methods to directly support users in their searches.
eHMI Visualization on the Entire Car Body: Results of a Comparative Evaluation of Concepts for the Communication between AVs and Manual Drivers
Automated driving, in particular in mixed traffic, comes with the problem of partially missing face-to-face interaction between driver and other road users when in automated mode (SAE L3+). The lack of confirmation from a driver-passenger of an automated vehicle (AV) to have seen a manual vehicle and that its driver can therefore overtake, change lane, or cut in safely can lead to dangerous situations and severe accidents. In this work, we propose the vehicle to take-over and support this communication demand. To better understand communication needs and user requirements we developed different concepts for external human-machine interface (eHMI) visualizations on the entire car body and investigated their potential in a user study (N=24). Our results suggest that novel concepts to take charge of the communication between AV and the driver of a manual car have great potential, are clearly understood by subjects, and are rated superior to the ordinary communication with headlight flashers only.
Interactive Image Driven Sound
This paper describes the work in progress of an interactive audiovisual synthesis application that explores the relationship between user interaction, image sequences and sound in the context of interactive digital arts and media productions. The application generates aesthetically pleasing audiovisual output in interactive and real-time. It is based on an analysis of visual changes in the image sequences which are mapped to musical scales. The application is intended to become an integrated and modular toolkit that supports creative professionals in exploring different combinations of image and sound representations, for instance, in the context of mood representations, artistic ideation and content creation processes. The current implementation marks an initial step into this direction.
Universal and Intuitive? Scientific Guidelines for Icon Design
In this paper, we examine approaches to icon design, and we argue that they are not ideal. For example, they might disadvantage people from distinct cultures, of distinct ages, and with distinct capabilities. However, we suggest that icons have the potential to be universally and intuitively comprehended because they can be similar to the real world. We present an approach that is grounded in visual perception because the process of visual perception is assumed to be universal and intuitive. We derive 34 guidelines from scientific research on visual perception, and we argue that these guidelines might be a basis for more universal and more intuitive icon designs in the future.
DispLagBox: Simple and Replicable High-Precision Measurements of Display Latency
The latency of a computing system affects users’ performance. One important component of end-to-end latency is display lag – the time required to turn framebuffer contents into photons emitted by a computer screen. However, there is no well-documented and widely available method for measuring display lag. Thus, the effect of display lag is rarely considered in scientific studies and system development.
We developed DispLagBox, a simple open-source device for measuring display lag. It supports the International Display Measurements Standard but also offers additional metrics for characterizing display lag with a resolution of 0.1 ms. The device, based on a Raspberry Pi computer, measures the time between VSYNC and a change in brightness on the connected display. Repeated measurements can be conducted automatically, so that not only average latency but also latency distributions for each device can be reported.
For most displays we tested, DispLagBox reports latencies that are close to those reported by a commercial black-box measurement device. Typically, the difference is 1 – 3 ms.
On the Materiality of Boundary Objects in Knowledge Management
In most health systems, patient information is available in both analog and digital formats and helps to simplify collaboration across disciplinary and departmental boundaries. Based on data from ethnographic fieldwork on patient information management (PIM), we applied the concept of boundary objects (Star and Griesemer, 1989) to analyze the collaborative management of patient health records through analog and digital artifacts in a complex socio-technical work system. Our results indicate that a dichotomous classification into analog and digital boundary objects (Fong et al., 2007) can be enhanced by a third category to understand and support PIM in a hospital context.