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MCI Paper Session 3 – VR + Games and Learning
7. September 2020 @ 17:00 - 18:30
Diese Session wird live auf YouTube übertragen:
The Cybersickness Susceptibility Questionnaire: Predicting Virtual Reality Tolerance
In this paper we propose the Cybersickness Susceptibility Questionnaire (CSSQ), which predicts the likeliness of a user experiencing cybersickness related symptoms when exposed to virtual reality (VR). The items on this questionnaire were compiled from several previous works that have demonstrated the influence of various biological, chemical and psychological factors on the human senses and nervous system.
A pilot study with 24 participants showed a correlation between CSSQ items and the perceived cybersickness during and after a virtual roller coaster ride. A high mean value in the CSSQ indicates a stronger perception of cybersickness during and after the exposure to VR.
What You See Isn’t Necessarily What You Get —Testing the Influence of Polygon Count on Physical and Self-Presence in Virtual Environments
Torben Volkmann, Daniel Wessel, Tim Ole Caliebe, Nicole Jochems
Universität zu Lübeck, Germany
A key characteristic for the effectiveness of Virtual Reality Environments is a high sense of presence — the feeling of being in that virtual place, even though being physically in another location. For a more differentiated perspective on presence, the term can be defined by subtypes, such as physical, social and self-presence. The Multimodal Presence Scale (MPS) by Makransky and colleagues deals with these dimensions, was translated into German, and evaluated regarding the sensitivity and specificity of the social presence subscale. The results raise the question how well differences in physical and self-presence can be detected by the scale. We conducted an experiment by constructing two virtual worlds, manipulating the polygon count of objects in each world, and measuring presence. Additionally, we assessed the correlation of the MPS with the Igroup Presence Questionnaire (IPQ). No significant differences in physical or self-presence were found. However, when examining an item that closely matches the manipulation of the self-presence world (the user’s virtual hands), a statistically significant difference was found. We provide three possible explanations for these results: 1) an insufficient impact of the abstraction levels, e.g., due to insufficient time and attention to the manipulation, or too little difference between the abstraction levels, 2) a lack of sensitivity of the used MPS and IPQ, or 3) the polygon count not being important for physical or self-presence. We conclude that high polygon count might not be that crucial for presence and provide suggestions for future research.
The explorative examination of constructed 3D models in immersive environments requires suitable user-centric interaction methods. Especially novel concepts for virtual camera control can offer advantages, e.g. for the analysis of model details. We extend the known concept of the camera-in-hand metaphor and implement a multidimensional viewport control technique that can be used with common head-mounted displays and VR-controllers. With our head-in-hand view the user is able to control the virtual camera directly by hand without losing the flexibility of head movements. To ensure convenient operation, the method restricts special rotation parameters and smoothes jerky gestures of the user hand. In addition, we discuss implications and improvement potential of the proposed concept as well as adverse effects on the user, such as motion sickness.
Lost in 3D – Orientierung in virtuellen Welten
Durch die zunehmende Verbreitung von immersiven Virtual Reality Anwendungen, wie z.B. Adventure und Sandbox Games, wird auch eine gute Orientierungsfähigkeit in virtuellen Welten wichtig. In diesem Paper stellen wir einen Prototypen vor, um Orientierungsvermögen in VR in Gebäuden zu untersuchen und Maßnahmen zur Verbesserung der Orientierungsfähigkeit zu testen.
In einer kleinen Vorstudie wurden erste Tests mit dem Prototypen durchgeführt. Der Vortest lieferte als Ergebnis die Tendenz, dass eine Positionsbestimmung in VR möglich ist und Probanden mit besserem, selbsteingeschätzten Orientierungsvermögen in der Realität sich auch in der virtuellen Welt besser orientieren können. Diese Tendenzen sind in einer größeren Nutzerstudie ausführlich zu untersuchen.
Ebenso sind die gewonnenen Erkenntnisse bzgl. der Maßnahmen zur Unterstützung der Orientierung in VR, wie z.B. Raumgestaltung, Fenster mit Blick auf Sonnenstand und Geländemerkmale, in der ausführlichen Nutzerstudie zu berücksichtigen.
Conveying Perspective in Multi-User Virtual Reality Collaborations
Effectively conveying the users’ visual point of view in a collaborative virtual reality environment is a crucial factor in successful and efficient cooperation. Visual indicators of users’ perspectives can reduce the required verbal communication and therefore increase the efficiency of work within remote teams.
In this paper we compare three distinct types of visual indicators regarding task completion time, precision and error rate. These perspective conveying methods include a 3D cone indicating the boundaries of a user’s field of view, highlighting the object a user is looking at, and displaying a direct video mirror of the user’s view port.
In an experiment these methods were used to transmit information from one person to another, that would otherwise be inaccessible. In a virtual warehouse scenario, participants moved visually obstructed boxes to a target area with a crane, while an experiment conductor provided visual cues as to where these boxes are, solely by looking at them.
The results indicate that object highlighting is significantly inferior regarding precision and error rate, while the video mirror proved to be the most reliable. The view cone was however perceived as the method with the highest degree of social presence.
Word Saber: An Effective and Fun VR Vocabulary Learning Game
In this paper, we introduce Word Saber, a virtual reality (VR) edu-game for vocabulary learning. The game design and game mechanics are inspired by Beat Saber, where players have to cut virtual cubes from predefined directions by using bi-manual interactions with two lightsabers. Word Saber uses a similar concept, but players have to cut the corresponding object to the presented word. We evaluated the effects of Word Saber on learning efficiency and enjoyment in comparison to a traditional vocabulary learning method.
The results show that Word Saber is effective for vocabulary learning.
However, as Word Saber presented significantly lower scores in terms of recognition and recall rate compared to a flashcard method, it has lower efficiency.
Regarding subjective preferences, our findings suggest that VR edu-games can be fun and useful for language learning in the long run as participants reported to be more motivated to use Word Saber afterward.
Playing in Virtual Nature: Improving Mood of Elderly People Using VR Technology
Age-related physical, mental, and social limitations can severely reduce the quality of life of elderly people. Research has shown that virtual reality (VR) can provide stimulating experiences, elicit positive emotions, and provoke relaxation. In this paper, we present an approach that integrates cognitive stimulating tasks, playful elements and virtual natural environments in one VR app tailored for elderly people. We developed a virtual walk in the forest where the players can solve cognitive tasks in two mini-games. To support a feeling of social presence and to reduce loneliness, we integrated a virtual dog as a companion who accompanies the players. We conducted an evaluation with 14 participants aged 66 to 84 years. The results show a change of positive and negative affect scores after using the VR experience. That supports our assumption, even though the differences were not significant. The participants enjoyed the VR app and were especially impressed by the experience of presence. Despite their inexperience in using VR technology, the participants behaved naturally and were interested in using the technology again. Our results support the assumption that elderly people can benefit from VR games in their everyday lives.
Power Play: How the Need to Empower or Overpower Other Players Predicts Preferences in League of Legends
The power motive describes our need to have an impact on others. Relevant in contexts such as sports, politics, and business, the power motive could help explain experiences and behaviours in digital games. We present four studies connecting the power motive to role and champion type choices in the MOBA game League of Legends (LoL). In Study1 we demonstrate that overall power motive does not predict role preferences. In Study2 we develop a 6-item-scale distinguishing between two facets of power in game settings: prosociality (empowering others) and dominance (overpowering others). In Study3 we show that prosociality and dominance uniquely predict role preferences for Support and Top Lane. In Study4 we demonstrate that champion type choice (tank, fighter, slayer, controller) is uniquely predicted by dominance and prosociality. We provide insight on how the wish for vertical interactions with other players—the power motive—can influence player interactions in multiplayer games
Navigation in Desktop-3D-Spielen mittels Gamepad: Vergleich zweier Ansätze für unerfahrene Spieler
Gängige Gamepad-Steuerungen von Desktop-3D-Spielen stellen oftmals eine Hürde für unerfahrene Spieler dar. Vor allem die gleichzeitige Steuerung von Bewegung und Blickrichtung bereitet Einsteigern Probleme. In dieser Arbeit wird eine im Bereich der 3D-Spiele vorherrschende Eingabemethode mit einer an frühe 3D-Spiele angelehnten alternativen Variante verglichen. 20 Probanden mit wenig oder gar keiner 3D-Spiel-Erfahrung absolvierten einen Testparcours mit Hindernissen und Sprunggruben. Dabei wurde die benötigte Zeit gemessen und Fehler registriert. Die Erhebung der subjektiven Eindrücke der Probanden erfolgte mittels UEQ-Fragebögen. Es konnte gezeigt werden, dass die Probanden den Parcours mit der alternativen Eingabemethode in kürzerer Zeit und mit weniger Fehlern absolvierten. Die Auswertung der UEQ-Fragebögen zeigt, dass die Probanden sowohl die pragmatische als auch die hedonische Qualität der alternativen Eingabemethode höher einschätzen. Daraus resultiert, dass diese einen einfacheren Einstieg in 3D-Spiele ermöglichen kann und somit in der vorgestellten oder einer ähnlichen Form insbesondere für Serious Games und ähnliche 3D-Anwendungen für unerfahrene Spieler als Alternative zur vorherrschenden Methode in Betracht gezogen werden sollte.
Game of TUK: Deploying a Large-Scale Activity-Boosting Gamification Project in a University Context
We present Game of TUK, a gamified mobile app to increase physical activity among students at TU Kaiserslautern. The scale of our project with almost 2,000 players over the course of four weeks is unique for a project in a university context. We present feedback we received and share our insights. Our results show that location-based activities in particular were very popular. In contrast, mini-games included in the app did not contribute as much to user activity as expected.
Achiever or Explorer? Gamifying the Creation Process of Training Data for Machine Learning
The development of artificial intelligence, e. g., for Computer Vision, through supervised learning requires the input of large amounts of annotated or labeled data objects as training data. The creation of high-quality training data is usually done manually which can be repetitive and tiring. Gamification, the use of game elements in a non-game context, is one method to make tedious tasks more interesting. This paper proposes a multi-step process for gamifying the manual creation of training data for machine learning purposes. We choose a user-adapted approach based on the results of a preceding user study with the target group (employees of an AI software development company) which helped us to identify annotation use cases and the users’ player characteristics. The resulting concept includes levels of increasing difficulty, tutorials, progress indicators and a narrative built around a robot character which at the same time is a user assistant. The implemented prototype is an extension of the company’s existing annotation tool and serves as a basis for further observations.